The word “photogram” (from the English word “photogram”) has a lot of meanings and translations. Each attempt to give a specific definition is similar to the pursuit of its own “shadow.” But you can still make a squeeze from the descriptions of this method of shooting, which we find in various print and online publications. The result is approximately the definition:
photogram is a photograph obtained without the use of a camera, by exposing objects on photosensitive paper or film. At the same time, there is no reflection of light from objects, but it passes through them. To improve the result, photographers experiment a lot not only with the choice of an object, but also with the photochemical process.
The emergence and development of photograms
Initially, the photogram served only for scientific purposes, and only at the beginning of the last century did it acquire the forms of a full-fledged artistic genre.
The development of the genre is obliged to the passion of photographers of abstraction and the burden of all kinds of experiments. The main role was played not by the plot, but by the geometry of the forms, the play of light and shadow. This helped to emphasize the abstract idea of photography.
The process of creating a photogram
To obtain a photo frame, you need to place any object on a photosensitive surface or film, while there must be darkness in the room. If you lean against the face of the film, you’ll get a self-portrait.
Then turn on the light for a short time. The light should illuminate the surface (sheet or film) with the subject there. The light source must be positioned as necessary in advance. The optimum time of illumination (exposure) is determined by each photographer himself through experiments and experiments.
Usually the result is a negative, but if necessary, you can create a familiar image in a projection or contact manner.
In our time, everything has become easier. New technologies, technology and post-processing make it possible to simulate a photogram and create it more simple method.
The main components of this method:
source of point light. It can be an ordinary LED,
transparent surface, it can serve as a floor or table made of glass. Here we put the photographed object / object, and under it – the camera,
translucent material (thin sheet of paper, polyethylene, cloth). This material will be projected our shadow image.
For ease of imaging, sometimes a mirror or pivoting camera screen is used. And for greater similarity with the photogram, you can process the resulting image in any graph. editor, applying special filters and layers.
Using a digital method of obtaining photograms, the photographer not only has the end result, but also takes an active part in the creation of a photogram. This is the main advantage over the analog method.
Photogram (photogram genre in photo art)
The light source and its location to get the picture
Photograms help to get the image of different details and nuances of the subject, sometimes appearing to be a kind of drawing. You just need to attach the item to the photosensitive paper and exhibit. But here it is very important to arrange the light source correctly – so that the part does not have a shadow, since the shadow in the picture can reflect on the visual distortion of the size and shape.
Some photographers use as a light a projection lamp of an enlarger, which is specially installed in the highest position.
You can also use multi-bulb spotlights with a milky or frosted glass, they also give a shadowless light. Such light is always located above the object, and after the frame is developed, we get the white silhouette of our subject.
Photograms are used in art, advertising and even technical photography.
An interesting use of photograms found in the natural sciences. The resulting images of leaves and flowers are very accurate. And in the genre of artistic photos tonal and halftone images are valued, which sometimes harmoniously combine with the usual color or black and white image.